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What is normal normal paraffin?

normal paraffin (from Latin parum “little” + affinis “related”) is a wax-like mixture of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) with a predominantly normal structure of composition from C18H38 (octadecane) to C35H72 (pentatriocontane).

Melting point – from 45°С to 65°С;

Density – 0.880-0.915 g / cm³ (15 ° C);

When heated above 90 ° C,paraffin in air begins to intensely soar without boiling. Dense vapors of paraffin heated to 120-150°C self-ignite upon contact with air.

Obtained mainly from oil.

Depending on the ratio of concentrations of heavy and light hydrocarbons,paraffin can be liquid, solid and finely crystalline (ceresin).

normal paraffin is a white substance with a molecular weight of 300-450, in the molten state it has a low viscosity.

normal paraffins are inert to most chemicals. They are oxidized by nitric acid, atmospheric oxygen (at 140 °C and above) and some other oxidizing agents to form various fatty acids similar to those found in vegetable and animal fats.

Synthetic fatty acids obtained by normal paraffin oxidation are used instead of vegetable and animal fats in the perfume industry, in the production of lubricants, detergents, and food products.

normal paraffin

normal paraffins can also be isolated from other products, for example, from ozokerite. Depending on the fractional composition, melting temperature and structure, normal paraffins are divided into liquid (tmelt ≤ 27 °C), solid (tmelt = 28-70 °C) and microcrystalline (tmelt > 60-80 °C) – ceresins. 

At the same melting point, ceresins differ from paraffins in their greater molecular weight, density, and viscosity. Ceresins react vigorously with fuming sulfuric acid, while normal paraffins react weakly with it.

During the distillation of oil, ceresins are concentrated in the sediment, and normal paraffin is distilled with distillate. Ceresins, which are concentrated in the residue after the distillation of fuel oil, are a mixture of cycloalkanes and, in a smaller amount, solid arenes and alkanes. 

There are relatively few isoalkanes in ceresin.

  • According to the degree of purification, normal paraffins are divided into the following types:
  1. slack and petrolatum, which contain up to 30% (wt.) oils;
  2. crude paraffins (ceresins) with oil content up to 6% (wt.);
  3. purified and highly purified normal paraffins (ceresins).
  4. Depending on the depth of cleaning, they are white (highly refined and refined grades) or slightly yellowish and from light yellow to light brown (crude normal paraffins). 
  5. Purified paraffin has a density of 881-905 kg/m³. Ceresins are a mixture of hydrocarbons with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule from 36 to 55 (from C36 to C55). 
  6. They are extracted from natural raw materials (natural ozocerite, as well as the remains of highly normal paraffinic grades of oil obtained during its processing). 
  7. Melting point 65-88 °C, molecular weight 500-700. paraffins are widely used in electrical engineering, food (deep cleaning normal paraffins; tmelt = 50-54 ° C; oil content 0.5-2.3% by weight), perfumery and other industries. 
  8. On the basis of ceresin, various compositions are made in household chemicals, vaseline; they are also used as thickeners in the production of greases, insulating materials in electrical and radio engineering and wax mixtures.

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