The admixture that can greatly reduce the amount of mixing water under the condition that the concrete slump is basically the same is called a superplasticizer.
The first generation of superplasticizers-naphthalene-based superplasticizers and melamine resin-based superplasticizers were developed in the early 1960s. Because of their performance compared with ordinary water-reducing agents, they were developed in the late 1930s. Lignosulfonate is a representative-it has a significant improvement, so it is also called a superplasticizer. The second-generation superplasticizer is sulfamate, although it is after the third-generation superplasticizer-polycarboxylic acid in chronological order. The graft copolymer with both sulfonic acid group and carboxylic acid group is the most important third-generation superplasticizer, and its performance is also the most excellent high-performance superplasticizer.
The superplasticizer has a strong dispersing effect on the cement, which can greatly improve the fluidity of the cement mixture and the slump of the concrete, while greatly reducing the water consumption and significantly improving the workability of the concrete. However, some superplasticizers will accelerate the loss of concrete slump, and excessive mixing will cause bleeding. The superplasticizer basically does not change the setting time of concrete. When the content is large (overdose incorporation), it has a slight retardation effect, but it does not delay the growth of the early strength of hardened concrete.
It can greatly reduce the water consumption and significantly increase the strength of concrete at various ages. When keeping the strength constant, it can save 10% or more of cement.
The content of chloride ions is small, and it does not corrode the steel bars. It can enhance the impermeability, freeze-thaw resistance and corrosion resistance of concrete, and improve the durability of concrete.
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